There is preliminary evidence that IL-1β facilitates PTI by activating tumor processes and recruiting immunosuppressive cells2,3
IL-1β signaling contributes to tumor growth and progression through activation of numerous transcription factors, including NF-κB2
IL-1β contributes to suppression of the immune response against the tumor by recruiting immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the tumor microenvironment3,4
Multiple other cell types and cytokines are also implicated in PTI, including other interleukins, TNF-α, and macrophages6
Novartis is leading research on the role of PTI as a driver of cancer
NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tregs, regulatory T cells.
1. Carmi Y, Doton S, Rider P, et al. J Immunol. 2013;190(7):3500-3509.
2. Chaudhry SI, Hooper S, Nye E, Williamson P, Harrington K, Sahai E. Oncogene. 2013;32(6):747-758.
3. Bunt SK, Sinha P, Clements VK, Leips J, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. J Immunol. 2006;176(1):284-290.
4. Chen L, Huang C-F, Li Y-C, et al. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018;75(11):2045-2058.
5. Taniguichi K, Karin M. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018;18(5):309-325.
6. Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. Cell. 2010;140(6):883-899.