IL-1β plays a key role in Pro-Tumor Inflammation (PTI)1


There is preliminary evidence that IL-1β facilitates PTI by activating tumor processes and recruiting immunosuppressive cells2,3



  • IL-1β signaling contributes to tumor growth and progression through activation of numerous transcription factors, including NF-κB2

  • IL-1β contributes to suppression of the immune response against the tumor by recruiting immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the tumor microenvironment3,4

Visual image illustrating how IL-1β contributes to both oncogenic processes promoting tumor growth and progression and suppression of the immune response in the microenvironment.


  • Multiple other cell types and cytokines are also implicated in PTI, including other interleukins, TNF-α, and macrophages6


Novartis is leading research on the role of PTI as a driver of cancer

NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tregs, regulatory T cells.


Carmi Y, Doton S, Rider P, et al. J Immunol. 2013;190(7):3500-3509.
Chaudhry SI, Hooper S, Nye E, Williamson P, Harrington K, Sahai E. Oncogene. 2013;32(6):747-758.
Bunt SK, Sinha P, Clements VK, Leips J, Ostrand-Rosenberg S. J Immunol. 2006;176(1):284-290.
Chen L, Huang C-F, Li Y-C, et al. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018;75(11):2045-2058.
Taniguichi K, Karin M. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018;18(5):309-325.
Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. Cell. 2010;140(6):883-899.

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